Morphological composition and meat and fat qualities of pig carcasses
The meat content of carcasses at different levels of feeding of pigs of large white, Myrhorod, Landrace, Poltava meat, red white-belt breeds was studied. The morphological composition of carcasses was studied by deboning the right carcass. Muscle mass was determined by the difference between the weight of the carcass and the total weight of fat and bone. The area of the "muscle eye" was measured in the lumbar section of the longest muscle of the back, between the last thoracic and the first lumbar vertebrae by copying the "pattern of the log" on the tracing paper and measuring it with a planimeter. The results of deboning the carcasses of experimental pigs of the first series of studies indicate that the morphological composition of the carcass depends on the breed characteristics of the animals. At an average daily gain of 250-350 g due to low gains and, as a rule, higher salinity, meat yield in animals of all experimental groups was low. At the same time, the red meat of the white-belt breed had the highest meat yield: at slaughter at 100 kg - 50.6%, at slaughter at 125 kg - 48.9%. With the increase of carcass weight to 125 kg, the specific weight of bones in carcasses decreased in all experimental groups by 0.3-0.6%. There was a decrease in the ratio of lard to meat in the range of 0.46-0.61 at slaughter in 100 kg and 0.49-0.70 in 125 kg. Increasing the average daily gain on fattening to 800-1000 g contributed to an increase in meat yield in carcasses compared to carcasses of medium-fat pigs. The difference between the carcasses of pigs per 100 kg was 1.1-1.7%; with increasing carcass weight, the difference was 1.4-2.1%. The highest energy value was characterized by meat of meat-fat and fat genotypes (groups I and II). At a typical level of fattening, the caloric content of their meat averaged 134.9-135.8 kcal at slaughter per 100 kg and 141.5-144.2 kcal at 125 kg, which is 8.1-9.0 and 11.1-13.8 kcal more than the representatives of the Landrace breed, where this figure was the lowest. As the average daily gain increased, so did the caloric content of the meat. It was lowest in pigs raised at intensive fattening levels. Thus, at an average daily gain of 250-350 g due to low gains and, as a rule, higher salinity, meat yield in animals of all experimental groups was low. Increasing the average daily gain on fattening to 800-1000 g contributed to an increase in meat yield in carcasses compared to carcasses of pigs raised under optimal conditions. The difference between the carcasses of pigs per 100 kg was 1.1-1.7%; with increasing carcass weight, the difference was 1.4-2.1%. Analysis of variance of the effect of the level of feeding on the meat content in carcasses showed that the coefficient of determination, ie the proportion of factorial dispersion
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