Keywords: rations, milk productivity, cows, metabolism, efficiency, feed conversion


Production studies to assess the impact of balanced diets on milk productivity of cows, metabolism and efficiency of feed conversion into milk were conducted on the population of Ukrainian black-spotted breed PSP "Novoselytsia" Popilnyansky district of Zhytomyr region, in the amount of 36 heads. The cows were in the second period of lactation, the average daily milk production was 13.9 kg with 4.1% fat. Research has optimized the lowest-cost diet using diet-balancing software. The diet was balanced in terms of metabolic energy, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus, in accordance with the feeding norms for cattle. All experimental animals were fed a balanced diet for 30 days, except for the 15-day adaptation period. Feeding cows with a balanced diet and improving the supply of calcium and phosphorus had a positive effect on increasing milk yield4% fat by 0.7 kg / cow (P <0.05). At the same time, the cost of feeding decreased by 17.0%. Optimization of rations can improve metabolic processes in cows, similar studies show that the level of immunoglobulins and uric acid in the blood increases significantly, while the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) decreas-es (P <0,01) from 18.2 to 15.0 mg / dl. The conversion of feed into milk also improves from 0.8 to 1.0. This study shows that bal-anced feeding of cows, after adjusting the rations in accordance with the norms of feeding, improves milk production, improves metabolic processes in the body and the efficiency of feed conversion into cow production conditions. Thus, a balanced diet of dairy cows improves nutrient utilization, milk production, microbial nitrogen supply, and feed conversion efficiency.


1. Нормы и рационы кормления сельскохозяйственных животных : справ. пособие. 3-е издание перераб. и доп. под ред. А. П. Калашникова, и др. Москва, 2003. 456 с.
2. Baker L. D., Ferguson J. D., Chalupa W., Responses in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 1995. issue 78. рр. 2424-2434.
3. Bayat A., Shingfield K. J, Overview of nutritional strategies to lower enteric methane emissions in ruminants. In 'Proceeding of Maataloustieteen Paivat, Helsinki, Finland. 2012. pp. 1–7.
4. Castillo A. R., Kebreab E., Beever DE., Barbi J. H., Sutton J. D., Kirby H. C., France J. The effect of protein suppleme -tation on nitrogen utilisation in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage diets. J. Anim. Sci. 2001. issue 79. pp. 247-253.
5. Garg M. R., Sherasia P. L., Bhanderi B. M., Phondba B. T., Shelke S. K. and Makkar H.P.S. Effects of feeding nutri-?ionally balanced rations on animal productivity, feed conversion efficiency, feed nitrogen use efficiency, rumen microbial protein supply, parasitic load, immunity and enteric methane emissions of milking animals under field conditions. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 2013. issue 179. pp. 24-35.
6. Haldar S., Rai S. N. Effects of energy and mineral supplementation on nutrient digestibility and efficiency of milk production in lactating goats. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 2003. issue 20, pp. 244-251.
7. Hawk P. B., Oser B. L., Summerson W. H. 1976. 'Physiological Chemistry.' 14th edn. (McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.: London, UK).
8. Hennessy D. W., Nolan J. V. Nitrogen kinetics in cattle fed a mature subtropical grass hay with and without protein meal supplementation. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 1988. issue 39. pp. 1135-1150.
9. Hutjens M., Chase L. E., 2012. Interpreting milk urea nitrogen (MUN) values. Extension - America's research-based learning network.
10. IAEA (1997). Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from purine derivatives in urine'. IAEA-TECDOC-945 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria).
11. Khochare A. B., Kank V. D., Gadegaonkar G. M., Salunke S. C. Strategic supplementation of limiting nutrients to medium yielding dairy animals at field level. In Proceedings of VIIth Animal Nutrition Association Conference. 2010. p. 30 (Bhubaneswar, India).
12. Kiersztejn M. I., Chervu M., Smogorzewski G. Z., Fadda J. M., Alexiewicz and Massry S.G., On the mechanisms of impaired phagocytosis in phosphate depletion. J.Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1992. no. 2, pp. 1484-1489.
13. Kohn R. A., Dinneen M. M., Russek-Cohen E. Using blood urea nitrogen to predict nitrogen excretion and efficiency of nitrogen utilisation in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs and rats. J. Anim. Sci. 2005. issue 83. pp. 879-889.
14. Makkar, H.P. S. and Chen, X.B. (2004). Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminants using urinary purine derivatives. (IAEA-CN-110, Vienna, Austria).
15. Nocek J. E., Socha M. T., Tomlinson D. J. The effect of trace mineral fortification level and source on performance of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 2006. issue 89. pp. 2679-2693.
16. NRC (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th edn. (National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences: Washington, DC, USA).
17. Rahmatullah M., Boyde T. R. C. An improvement in determination of urea using diacetyl monoxine method with and without deproteinization. Clin. Chem. Acta. 1980. issue 107. pp. 3-9.
18. Shahjalal M. D., Bishwas M. A. A., Tareque A. M. M., Dohi H. Growth and carcass characteristics of goats given diets varying protein concentration and feeding level. Asian-Austral. J. Anim. Sci. 2000. issue 13, pp. 613-618.
19. Sherasia P. L., Phondba B. T., Hossain S. A., Patel B. P., Garg M.R. Impact of feeding balanced rations on milk production, methane emission, metabolites and feed conversion efficiency in lactating cows. Indian J. Anim. Res. 2016. issue 50 (4): 505-511
20. Butler W. R., Calaman J. J., Beam S. W. Plasma and milk urea nitrogen in relation to pregnancy rate in lactation dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 1996. issue 74. pp. 858-865.
21. Spears J. W. Micronutrients and immune function in cattle. Proceedings Nutr. Soc. 2000. issue 59, pp. 587-594.
22. Wittenberg, K. Enteric methane emissions and mitigation opportunities for Canadian cattle production systems. 2008. Methane emmissionsWittenburg.pdf.
How to Cite
Borshchenko, V. V., Lavryniuk, O. O., Solonenko, N. I., Solonenko, E. L., & Krysan, S. V. (2021). INFLUENCE OF BALANCED FEEDING RATIONS ON DAIRY PRODUCTIVITY OF CRUSTS, SUBSTANCE EXCHANGE AND EFFICIENCY OF FEED CONVERSION IN MILK. Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. The Series: Livestock, (3 (46), 121-126.