DEPENDENCE OF DANISH PIGS FATTENING QUALITIES ON THE TYPE OF FEEDING

Keywords: fattening pigs, fattening qualities, type of feed,, liquid and dry feed, type of feeding

Abstract

The aim of the article was to investigate the dependence of fattening qualities of Danish pigs on the type of feeding. In order to determine the impact of feed type on the results of fattening pigs, a research and production experiment was conducted on the basis of an industrial pig farm in the Central steppe of Ukraine, after which the data were summarized, analyzed and described in this manuscript. Fattening of young pigs was carried out in two technological groups including 195 heads in the premises of fattening farm of one enterprise, where the conditions of pigs keeping were identical, except the type of feed mixtures in the rations. The pigs of the control group were fattened with dry feed, and the pigs of the experimental group were fattened with liquid. The initial average live weight and age at fattening were the same in animals of both groups, however, at the end of the fattening period at age of 88 days, pigs consuming liquid feed significantly outperformed peers on dry feed by 6.9 kg or 6.1% (p <0.001). It was also found that the growth intensity was higher in animals of the experimental group on 87.1 g or 9.4% - by average daily gain, on 8.3 kg or 8.5% - by absolute gain,on 4.0% - by relative growth. Significantly faster on 5.6 days or 3.8% reached a weight of 100 kg of pigs for fatten-ing with liquid feed, relative to analogues for fattening dry. No significant effect of feed type on feed conversion rate in both groups was found. A study of the fattening qualities of pigs on a set of fattening qualities, calculated using the evaluation index showed that the animals for the use of liquid feed scored a higher score of 6.1 or 17.8% compared to analogues who were given dry feed. Thus, fattening young pigs of Danish origin using a liquid type of feeding is more efficient and gives higher results in a shorter time at the same feed costs compared to fattening with dry feed.

References

1. Березовский Н. Д., Почерняев Ф. К., Коротков В. А. Методика моделирования индексов для использования их в селекции свиней. Методы улучшения процессов селекции, разведения и воспроизводства свиней (методические указа-ния). М., 1986. С. 3–14.
2. Вдовіченко Ю. В., Нечмілов, В. М., Повод, М. Г. Продуктивність поросят за сухого, вологого та рідкого типу годівлі на дорощуванні. Вісник Полтавської державної аграрної академії. 2018. Вип. 3, С. 106–109. https://doi.org/10.31210/visnyk2018.03.15
3. Князев К. И. Интенсивный мясной откорм свиней. М: Колос, 1979. С. 222.
4. Лесной, В. Особенности селекционно-племенной работы с породами свиней в ООО «Фридом Фарм Бекон». Аграрний тиждень. 2015. Вип. 19, С. 13. https://a7d.com.ua/tvarinnictvo/1457-osobennosti-selekcionno-plemennoj-raboty-s.html
5. Михалко О. Г. Відгодівельні якості свиней ірландського походження за різного типу годівлі. Вісник Сумського національного аграрного університету. Серія "Тваринництво". 2020. Вип. 3(42), С. 51–57. http://repo.snau.edu.ua/bitstream/123456789/8720/1/7.pdf
6. Повод М. Г., Іжболдина О. О, Нечмилов В. Н., Михалко О.Г., Жижка С. В. Сезонна продуктивність гібридного молодняку свиней за різних типів годівлі. Вісник Сумського національного аграрного університету. Серія "Тваринництво". 2018. Вип. 2(34), С. 194–200. http://irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgi-bin/irbis_nbuv/cgiirbis_64.exe?C21COM=2&I21DBN=UJRN&P21DBN=UJRN&IMAGE_FILE_DOWNLOAD=1&Image_file_name=PDF/Vsna_tvar_2018_2_46.pdf
7. Рибалко В. П., Березовський М. Д., Богданов Г. А. Сучасні методики досліджень у свинарстві. Полтава, 2005. С. 228.
8. Самсонова О. Е., Бабушкин В. А. Воспроизводительные, откормочные и мясные качества свиней в зависимости от условий кормления и генотипа животных в условиях центрально-чернозёмной зоны. Тамбов:Консалтинговая компания Юком. 2019. С. 116 [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: https://ukonf.com/doc/mon.2019.10.02.pdf (дата звернення 17.09.2021 p.).
9. Столюк В. Нові підходи в годівлі свиней. Ефективне свинарство. 2010. Вип. 4., С. 33-35. https://agro.press/storage/journal/56/parts/691/e04bb9ac2b63df6ad84b6e801dcceed4.pdf
10. Тимко В. В. Типи годівлі свиней, їх переваги та недоліки. Матеріали Міжнародної студентської науково-практичної конференції «Наукові дослідження молоді у вирішенні актуальних проблем аграрного сектора України». 2012. С. 52–57. http://ela.nati.org.ua:8080/bitstream/123456789/37/1/v.tymko%20typy_godivli.pdf
11. Халак В. І., Грабовська О. С. Комплексна оцінка відгодівельних і м’ясних якостей молодняку свиней універсального напряму продуктивності та деякі їх інтер’єрні особливості. Науково-технічний бюлетень Державного науково-дослідного контрольного інституту ветеринарних препаратів та кормових добавок і Інституту біології тварин. 2020. Вип. 2, С. 205–212. https://doi.org/10.36359/scivp.2020-21-2.27
12. Чернєв В. Тваринництво. Годівля насухо. Альтернатива. [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: https://alt-ua.com/blog/tvarinnictvo-godivlya-nasukho (дата звернення 17.09.2021 p.).
13. Blem, N., 2018. New pig farm with liquid feeding. Skiold group. veb-sait. URL: https://skiold.com/news/new-pig-farm-with-liquid-feeding (date of request17.09.2021)
14. Brooks, P., Beal, J., Niven, S., 2001. Liquid feeding of pigs: potential for reducing environmental impact and for improving productivity and food safety. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia. Vol. 13, pp. 49–63. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285035317_Liquid_feeding_of_pigs_potential_for_reducing_environmental_impact_and_for_improving_productivity_and_food_safety
15. Buragohain, R., Bibeka, N. S., Arup, K. S., Bhuyan, R., Dowarah, R., Roychaudhury, R. and Bora, A., 2019. Dry Vs. Liquid Feeding: Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Economics in Large White Yorkshire (LWY) Grower-Finisher Pigs. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci., Vol. 8(8), pp. 2019–2025. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.808.235
16. Carcò, G., Gallo, L., Dalla Bona, M., Latorre, M. A., Fondevila, M. and Schiavon, S., 2018. The influence of feeding behaviour on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics of growing pigs. PLoS One., issue 13(10):e0205572. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205572. PMID: 30321211; PMCID: PMC6188860.
17. Chae, B. J., 2000. Impacts of wet feeding of diets on growth and carcass traits in pigs. J. Appl. Anim. Res., issue 17, pp. 81–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2000.9706293
18. Davies, I., 2015. Liquid-feeding pigs ups finish weight, but lowers kill-out rates. Farmers weekly. veb-sait. URL: https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/liquid-feeding-pigs-ups-finish-weight-lowers-kill-rates (date of request17.09.2021)
19. Elkmann, А. and Bärlein, N., 2001. Dry feeding and liquid feeding in pig rearing. Big Datchman. veb-sait. URL: https://www.bigdutchman.com/en/pig-production/news/detail/dry-feeding-and-liquid-feeding-in-pig-rearing/ (date of request17.09.2021)
20. Han, Y., Thacker, P.A. and Yang, J., 2006. Effects of the Duration of Liquid Feeding on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Weaned Pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., Vol 19, issue 3, pp. 396–401. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ad9a/63066870dd50d499327fed776d4054adaf7d.pdf
21. Hurst, D, Clarke, L. and Lean, I., 2008. Effect of liquid feeding by different water-to-feed ratios on the growth performance of growing-finishing pigs. Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience. issue. 2, pp. 1297–1303. https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173110800253X
22. Hurst, D., Juniper, D., Clark, L., Litten-Brown, J., Corson, A. and Lean, I., 2020. Effect of liquid feeding at different water-to-feed ratios on the morphological adaptations in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs. Journal of Food Nutrition and Agriculture, issue 3, pp. 1–8. https://doi.org/10.21839/jfna.2020.v3.314
23. Kim, J., 2011.Test for improving pig feed. Pig Progress Piglet Feeding Special, issue 27(4). https://issuu.com/pigprogress/docs/04-2011
24. Kouhei, M., Kazuo, H. and Seigo, I., 1996. Effects of Wet/Dry Feeding for Finishing Pigs on Growth, Feed Conversion and Carcass Quality. Journal of the Japanese Pig Society, issue 33, pp. 5–13. https://doi.org/10.5938/youton.33.5
25. Lawlor, P. G., Lynch, P. B., Gardiner, G. E., Caffrey, P. J. and O’Doherty, J. V., 2002. Effect of liquid feeding weaned pigs on growth performance to harvest. J. Anim. Sci., issue 80, pp. 1725–1735. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.8071725x
26. Liquid vs Dry Feeding. The pig site. veb-sait. URL: https://www.thepigsite.com/articles/liquid-vs-dry-feeding [date of request17.09.2021]
27. McCracken, B. A., Spurlock, M. E., Roos, M. A., Zuckermann, F. A. and Gaskins, H. R., 1999. Biochemical and Molecular Action of Nutrients Weaning Anorexia May Contribute to Local Inflammation in the Piglet Small Intestine. J. Nutr., issue 129, pp. 613–619. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/129.3.613
28. Moon, J. S., Kwon, I. K. and Chae, B. J., 2004. Effects of Wet Feeding of Diets with or without Food Waste on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., Vol. 17, issue 4, pp. 504–510. https://www.animbiosci.org/upload/pdf/17_80.pdf
29. Myers, A. J., Goodband, R. D., Tokach, M. D., Dritz, S. S., DeRouchey, J. M. and Nelssen, J. L., 2013. The effects of diet form and feeder design on the growth performance of finishing pigs1,2. Journal of Animal Science, issue 91(7), pp. 3420–3428. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5612
30. Nitikanchana, S., Dritz ,S. S., Tokach, M. D., Goodband, R. D., Derouchy, J. M. and Nielsen, J. L., 2012. Meta-analysis on pros and cons of wet-dry feeders. IPVS Congress. Pig progress. veb-sait. URL: https://www.pigprogress.net/Finishers/Articles/2012/12/Meta-analysis-on-pros-and-cons-of-wet-dry-feeders-1120060W/ (date of request17.09.2021)
31. O’Meara, F. M., Gardiner, G. E., Clarke, D., Cummins, W., O’Doherty, J. V. and Lawlor, P. G., 2020. Microbiological assessment of liquid feed for finisher pigs on commercial pig units. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 130, Issue 2, pp. 356–369. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.14785
32. O'Meara, F. M., Gardiner, G. E., O'Doherty, J. V. and Lawlor, P. G., 2020. The effect of feed form and delivery method on feed microbiology and growth performance in grow-finisher pigs. J Anim Sci., issue 98(3):skaa021. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa021.
33. Peadar, L. and O’ Meara, F., 2018. Comparison of Dry, Wet/Dry and Wet feeding for Finisher pigs. Teagasc, Pig Development Department. veb-sait. URL: https://www.teagasc.ie/publications/2018/comparison-of-dry-wetdry-and-wet-feeding-for-finisher-pigs.php (date of request17.09.2021)
34. Pedersen, C. and Stein, H. H., 2010. Effects of liquid and fermented liquid feeding on energy, dry matter, protein and phosphorus digestibility by growing pigs, Livestock Science, Vol. 134, Issues 1(3), pp. 59–61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.097.
35. Plumed-Ferre, C. A. and Wright, V., 2009. Fermented pig liquid feed: nutritional, safety and regulatory aspects. Journal of Applied Microbiology. Vol. 106, Issue 2. рр. 351–368. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03938.x
36. Sol, C., Castillejos, L., López-Vergé, S., Muns, R. and Gasa, J., 2019. Effects of the Feed: Water Mixing Proportion on Diet Digestibility of Growing Pigs. Animals, issue 9, p. 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100791
37. Sulabo, R. C., Groesbeck, C. N., Benz, J. M., McKilligan, D., Goodband, R., Tokach D., Michael D., DeRouchey, J. M., Nelssen, J. L., and Dritz, S. S., 2006. Effects of a liquid (neolac1) and dry feed combination fed in varying durations on weanling pig performance, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, Vol. 0, issue. 10. https://doi.org/10.4148/2378-5977.6991
38. Zhang, S, Yoo, D. H., Ao, X., Kim, I. H., 2020. Effects of dietary probiotic, liquid feed and nutritional concentration on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal score of weaning piglets. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, issue 33(10), p. 1617. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0473
39. Zoric, M., Johansson, S. E. and Wallgren, P., 2015. Behaviour of fattening pigs fed with liquid feed and dry feed. Porc Health Manag, Vol 1, issue14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40813-015-0009-7
Published
2022-01-06
How to Cite
Mykhalko, O. H. (2022). DEPENDENCE OF DANISH PIGS FATTENING QUALITIES ON THE TYPE OF FEEDING. Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. The Series: Livestock, (4 (47), 99-107. https://doi.org/10.32845/bsnau.lvst.2021.4.17